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Amoxicillin is a broad-spectrum aminopenicillin and is indicated in the treatment of bacterial infections such as actinomycosis, biliary-tract infections, bone and joint infections, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, gastroenteritis, (including Escherichia coli enteritis and Salmonella enteritis, but not shigellosis), gonorrhoea, mouth infections, sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia (except where Mycoplasma suspected), typhoid and paratyphoid fever, urinary-tract infections, bacterial meningitis and the prophylaxis of endocarditis.
It is also used in the treatment of Lyme disease.
Glandular fever and lymphatic lymphoma.
Bacterial resistance to amoxicillin or ampicillin.
The most common adverse effects are sensitivity reactions including urticaria, maculopapular rashes (often appearing more than seven days after commencing treatment), fever, joint pains and angioedema. Anaphylaxis occasionally occurs and has sometimes been fatal. Late sensitivity reactions may include serum sickness-like reactions, haemolytic anaemia and acute interstitial nephritis.
Other adverse effects are generally associated with large intravenous doses of amoxicillin or impaired renal function. These include transient leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia and neutropenia (which might have some immunological basis); prolongation of bleeding time and defective platelet function; convulsions and other signs of central nervous system toxicity (encephalopathy has been reported following intrathecal administration and can be fatal); electrolyte disturbances due to administration of large amounts of sodium.
Most patients with infectious mononucleosis develop a maculopapular rash when treated with amoxicillin, and patients with other lymphoid disorders such as lymphatic leukaemia also appear to be at higher risk.
Some patients with syphilis may experience a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction shortly after treatment is started. Symptoms include fever, chills, headache and reaction at the site of lesions. The reaction can be dangerous in cardiovascular syphilis or where there is a serious risk of increased local damage such as with optic atrophy.
Gastrointestinal effects (diarrhoea and nausea) reported with amoxicillin commonly occur after oral administration, not parenteral administration. Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibiotics.
Erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, hepatitis and cholestatic jaundice have been reported with combined amoxicillin and clavulanic acid therapy.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding:
If you are pregnant, think you might be pregnant or are breast feeding, you must tell your doctor or nurse before you are given this medicine.